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Upon completion, the novel's title closely paralleled its predecessor's: Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Tom Sawyer's Comrade. Mark Twain composed the story in pen on notepaper between and Paul Needham, who supervised the authentication of the manuscript for Sotheby's books and manuscripts department in New York in , stated, "What you see is [Clemens'] attempt to move away from pure literary writing to dialect writing".

For example, Twain revised the opening line of Huck Finn three times. He initially wrote, "You will not know about me", which he changed to, "You do not know about me", before settling on the final version, "You don't know about me, without you have read a book by the name of 'The Adventures of Tom Sawyer'; but that ain't no matter. A later version was the first typewritten manuscript delivered to a printer.

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Demand for the book spread outside of the United States. Thirty thousand copies of the book had been printed before the obscenity was discovered.

A new plate was made to correct the illustration and repair the existing copies. Twain did so. Later it was believed that half of the pages had been misplaced by the printer. In , the missing first half turned up in a steamer trunk owned by descendants of Gluck's. The library successfully claimed possession and, in , opened the Mark Twain Room to showcase the treasure.

In relation to the literary climate at the time of the book's publication in , Henry Nash Smith describes the importance of Mark Twain's already established reputation as a "professional humorist", having already published over a dozen other works.

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Smith suggests that while the "dismantling of the decadent Romanticism of the later nineteenth century was a necessary operation," Adventures of Huckleberry Finn illustrated "previously inaccessible resources of imaginative power, but also made vernacular language, with its new sources of pleasure and new energy, available for American prose and poetry in the twentieth century.

While it was clear that the publication of Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was controversial from the outset, Norman Mailer , writing in The New York Times in , concluded that Twain's novel was not initially "too unpleasantly regarded. Eliot and Ernest Hemingway 's encomiums 50 years later," reviews that would remain longstanding in the American consciousness.

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Alberti suggests that the academic establishment responded to the book's challenges both dismissively and with confusion. Upon issue of the American edition in several libraries banned it from their shelves. One incident was recounted in the newspaper the Boston Transcript :. The Concord Mass. Public Library committee has decided to exclude Mark Twain's latest book from the library.

One member of the committee says that, while he does not wish to call it immoral, he thinks it contains but little humor, and that of a very coarse type. He regards it as the veriest trash. The library and the other members of the committee entertain similar views, characterizing it as rough, coarse, and inelegant, dealing with a series of experiences not elevating, the whole book being more suited to the slums than to intelligent, respectable people.

Writer Louisa May Alcott criticized the book's publication as well, saying that if Twain "[could not] think of something better to tell our pure-minded lads and lasses he had best stop writing for them". Twain later remarked to his editor, "Apparently, the Concord library has condemned Huck as 'trash and only suitable for the slums.

In , New York's Brooklyn Public Library also banned the book due to "bad word choice" and Huck's having "not only itched but scratched" within the novel, which was considered obscene. When asked by a Brooklyn librarian about the situation, Twain sardonically replied:. I am greatly troubled by what you say. The mind that becomes soiled in youth can never again be washed clean. None can do that and ever draw a clean sweet breath again on this side of the grave. Many subsequent critics, Ernest Hemingway among them, have deprecated the final chapters, claiming the book "devolves into little more than minstrel-show satire and broad comedy" after Jim is detained.

That is the real end. The rest is just cheating.

In his introduction to The Annotated Huckleberry Finn , Michael Patrick Hearn writes that Twain "could be uninhibitedly vulgar", and quotes critic William Dean Howells , a Twain contemporary, who wrote that the author's "humor was not for most women". However, Hearn continues by explaining that "the reticent Howells found nothing in the proofs of Huckleberry Finn so offensive that it needed to be struck out". Much of modern scholarship of Huckleberry Finn has focused on its treatment of race.

Many Twain scholars have argued that the book, by humanizing Jim and exposing the fallacies of the racist assumptions of slavery, is an attack on racism. In one instance, the controversy caused a drastically altered interpretation of the text: in , CBS tried to avoid controversial material in a televised version of the book, by deleting all mention of slavery and omitting the character of Jim entirely. Because of this controversy over whether Huckleberry Finn is racist or anti-racist, and because the word " nigger " is frequently used in the novel a commonly used word in Twain's time which has since become vulgar and taboo , many have questioned the appropriateness of teaching the book in the U.

There have been several more recent cases involving protests for the banning of the novel. In , high school student Calista Phair and her grandmother, Beatrice Clark, in Renton , Washington, proposed banning the book from classroom learning in the Renton School District, though not from any public libraries, because of the word "nigger". Clark filed a request with the school district in response to the required reading of the book, asking for the novel to be removed from the English curriculum.

The two curriculum committees that considered her request eventually decided to keep the novel on the 11th grade curriculum, though they suspended it until a panel had time to review the novel and set a specific teaching procedure for the novel's controversial topics. In , a Washington state high school teacher called for the removal of the novel from a school curriculum. The teacher, John Foley, called for replacing Adventures of Huckleberry Finn with a more modern novel. In , Adventures of Huckleberry Finn was removed from a public school district in Virginia , along with the novel To Kill a Mockingbird , due to their use of racial slurs.

Publishers have made their own attempts at easing the controversy by way of releasing editions of the book with the word "nigger" replaced by less controversial words. A edition of the book, published by NewSouth Books , employed the word "slave" although being incorrectly addressed to a freed man , and did not use the term "Injun.

According to publisher Suzanne La Rosa "At NewSouth, we saw the value in an edition that would help the works find new readers. If the publication sparks good debate about how language impacts learning or about the nature of censorship or the way in which racial slurs exercise their baneful influence, then our mission in publishing this new edition of Twain's works will be more emphatically fulfilled.

Two similarly expurged editions of the book were published in The Hipster Huckleberry Finn employed the word "hipster". The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn: Robotic Edition employed the word "robot", [48] and included modified illustrations in which Jim was replaced with a robot character. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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For other uses, see Adventures of Huckleberry Finn disambiguation. Novel by Mark Twain. Main article: List of Tom Sawyer characters. Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Tom Sawyer's comrade This sequence seems to me to be quite important both to the technical functioning of the plot and to the larger meaning of the novel. The House of Death is a two—story frame building which comes floating downstream, one paragraph after Huck and m catch their soon—to—be famous raft.

While Twain never explicitly says so, his description of the house and its contents Doyno Writing Huck Finn: Mark Twain's creative process.


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University of Pennsylvania Press. James S. Leonard, Thomas A. Tenney, and Thadious M. Notebook No. Typescript, P. Mark Twain Papers. Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley. Modern Philology.


College English. Clemens Introduction, notes, and bibliography by Michael Patrick Hearn 1st ed.

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New York, NY [u. University of Virginia Library. Archived from the original on January 17, Retrieved December 17, Potter, The Antioch Review. Bulletin of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Tenney; Thadious M. Davis December Satire or Evasion? Duke University Press. American Heritage Magazine. Archived from the original on January 19, Retrieved November 8, If Mr. Clemens cannot think of something better to tell our pure-minded lads and lasses he had best stop writing for them.

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Green Hills of Africa. New York: Scribner. Mark Twain: A Life. New York: FreePress. March 27, January 19, Retrieved December 29, CBS News. December 1, January 4, The Further Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Crown Publishers. Kirkus , September 9, Naxos Records. Retrieved December 8, Duke Special.

Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. Mark Twain. Assuredly, it costs me more than half the pain I endure, to see you suffer; and reasonably so, because the evils which we ourselves feel we do not actually ourselves suffer, but it certain sentient faculties which God plants in us, that feel them: whereas what we feel on account of others, we feel by consequence of a certain reasoning process which goes on within our minds.

Good night, my wife; go thy way. Being in this extremity, he frequently called me, merely to satisfy him that I was at his side. At length, he composed himself a little to rest, which strengthened our hopes; so much so, indeed, that I left the room, and went to rejoice thereupon with Mademoiselle de la Boetie.

In pursuance of the instructions which you gave me last year in your house at Montaigne, Monseigneur, I have put into a French dress, with my own hand, Raymond de Sebonde, that great Spanish theologian and philosopher; and I have divested him, so far as I could, of that rough bearing and barbaric appearance which you saw him wear at first; that, in my opinion, he is now qualified to present himself in the best company.